Marco Casagrande - 台北有機活氣針灸 Taipei Organic Acupuncture

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Marco Casagrande - 台北有機活氣針灸 Taipei Organic Acupuncture

文章eaGer 發表於 2010-11-05, 08:05

廢墟建築學院 Ruin Academy
文:馬可.卡薩格蘭 Marco Casagrande
譯:林宜珍 Lea Yi-Chen Lin

Acupuncture 針灸
針灸是將針插入身體上不同穴位,藉此紓緩疼痛或達到療效的一種程序。

Urban 都市
都市計劃結合土地利用以及交通規劃,增進改善建築、經濟與社會環境的品質。

Urban design 都市設計
都市設計的關注於城鎮的各種公共基礎設施的安排、外觀與機能,特別是都市公共空間的形塑。

Environmental art 環境藝術
環境藝術則是指與生態議題相關,探索存在於政治、歷史及社會脈絡中各種可能性的藝術。

Sociology 社會學
社會學是門理解人類社交行為一種科學。

Anarchy 無政府
無政府(安那其)是毋須等待指揮指示與任何正式的允許即產生行動,無政府主義是根源自一股自己來做的衝動:其他所有一切都來源於此。


台北市裡的社區菜園以及都市農園令人驚艷,它們如野菇般地在都市中衰敗、被忽略或沉睡中的角落,可喻為城市的養料。 這些區域位於官方都市規範或正常經濟機制介入的範圍,它們是卡在社區活動的節點之間的城市縫隙,並且透過菜園的施作表達呈現無政府平台。 這些無政府菜園形成的網絡呈現出一種正面的社會失序,增進了台北都市的活力,是樂觀的恐怖主義。它們將工業城市轉向有機,轉向不可預期,並且逐漸毀滅現代的都市主義。它們是點狀的有機革命,以及「第三代城市」的種子,工業城市的有機廢墟。

Corners are windy 角落處總有細縫使風起

克勞德.李維史托相信人類之美來自於成為自然的一部分,霍克海默(Max Horkheimer)與阿多諾(Theodor Adorno)則對工業化發展完全失去希望,並認為這完全違反啟蒙運動時代為始開啟的思想解放,‭ ‬並且使人性腐朽。塔可夫斯基的電影《潛行者》‭(‬Mosfilm 出品‭, ‬1979年‭)‬帶領著人們進入一種境地,在那裏他們最深層的希求得以實現,對比著周遭工業化的現實環境,這境是個有機的廢墟,‭ ‬對俄國科幻小說家史楚加茨基兄弟(Strugatsky brothers)阿爾卡地(Arkady)及包里斯(Boris)‭ ‬來說,這個境地則幻化為其小說作品《路邊野餐》(Roadside Picnic)‭。

台北的社區花園簡直就是《路邊野餐》翻版,老阿嬤們就如同電影裡那位「潛行者」一般帶領我們到達那使美夢都能成真的zone,崇高的李維史托可以在此展開新的人類學研究,探討這類都市堆肥菜園文化與周遭城市之間的並行關係‭ - ‬可說是種反轉的現代化,並且聚焦於一種在地智慧。霍克海默與阿多諾的墳墓應該要被移到這其中一個台北都市針灸穴裡來,即使如他們般思考的人,也能在這無價值的現代化與冷硬的工業主義環繞中找到一絲希望。‭ ‬

哈寧安提拉(Jaakko Hämeen-Anttila)教授曾說:「現今社會中無用無價值的項目將被某種體制之外行為準則塞滿:就如同牆角處難免有隙縫,使角落處總是能有空氣灌進原本窒息的空間之中」。於是藉由尋找出台北城市各處的都市農場及社區菜園,台北有了自己的角落。

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↗ Marco Casagrande 於台北 UrbanCore 創設之廢墟建築學院 Ruin Academy,學員辛勤地工作著

在角落裡是甚麼樣的推動這些行為準則隱身的秩序進入到城市之中‭? ‬或許可被稱為「在地智慧」,是因地制宜針對現代人類及自然之間所建立起來的溝通橋樑。台北這些如針灸穴位的點狀菜園,正滲透過都市的工業化表面,進入最初始的層面,這些自發性的社區菜園就是能穿刺台北都市的灸針。「在地智慧」與第一代城市連結著,當現有建立的人文環境依賴自然,並受自然控制,這些無政府園丁們也正同時控制著工業城市。

Dominate the no-man’s land 佔領無人之域

社區菜園佔領著廢棄的工地以及荒廢的住宅區域、為了等到合宜時機開發而騰空的空地街廓、河岸邊泛洪區,甚至荒老的墓園,其中許多是發生在土地產權不明確的地點。有時候花園只會存在幾年,如那些位在待開發土地上的案例,而有些卻是世代延續下來,例如位在忠孝橋及中興橋之間河岸或小島上的田地。花園越小就越容易佔領都市中的閒置角落,靈活積極地佔領無人之境。

這些台北的都市農業社群之中最著名的是寶藏巖社區,最早是個由跟隨國民黨撤退來台的老兵所組成的非法違建社區。在設法使其合法化的過程中,寶藏巖隨著名氣高漲,最後竟導致原生社群被市政府逐出,而房舍卻轉交給了藝術家以及藝術相關組織,過程中所有的農地皆毀於一旦。似乎是都市對戰著都市針灸術。在它是非法身分的時候,寶藏巖本身具有強大力量且自給自足,社區居民自力建造房舍以及所屬農場,並且跟從自己訂下的規矩。官方城市意圖排擠掉這個極具競爭力的非正式有機對手,一些非政府組織則發現了這個地方的魅力,開始介入想保住這個地區,最後這些非政府組織及藝術家接管了這個如今已成名的社區,但也與政府掛勾在一起。那些都會農夫們因不再能融入這新的改變中,而必須離開。現在在寶藏巖原本種菜的地方,矗著著著黃色塑膠充氣大帳棚,裡頭有DJ播放嘻哈, 「在地智慧」在此地已壽終就寢。

但寶藏巖不孤單,都會農事在各種社會階層以及城市各個角落中都發生著,那些勇於挑戰社會規則的市民們隨時準備好佔領土地,前仆後繼地開墾社區菜園。某些針灸點發生了作用並且豐富著周遭環境逐漸消逝中的都市紋理,城市的工業化表面會經常出現斷裂,這些香草與蔬菜就栽植在這樣的縫隙當中。人們正在毀壞這個工業城市,而當這些人造物回歸自然之中時就成為廢墟。

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↗ UrbanCore - 廢墟建築學院 Ruin Academy

Urban Editors 城市編輯者

與西方城市相較,台北所扮演的角色十分特別,整座城市的美感被一個巨大的共同機器所控制著,都市機能頻繁地被編修著,如同一部不時更換晶片以達最強功能的超級電腦,城市中的資料即是居民,也是這部機器需要處理的對象。大多是時候他可以運轉順利,但也有人感染了病毒‭ - ‬他們聚在一起產生一些自發性的舉動,例如一起打太極改善都市中的角落,臨時占用街道或一些角落發起特別的市集,他們也創造農場‭ ‬–‭ ‬他們將有機的素材擠進這個大機器中,彷彿是個爬蟲類誤闖乾淨的冷氣室。他們為何要這樣做‭? ‬為什麼自然想要侵入這座機器‭?‬

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地產開發商才是真正的城市編輯者,他們與都市官方及政治力量連線並且真正編輯著城市的面貌。建築師則位在第二線‭ - ‬有點像是跟在剛狩獵成功的獅子後頭等吃的土狼,金錢是開發商在進行編輯都市紋理時的動力與參考值,這並不像是都市針灸而是類似西方的醫學手術‭ - ‬在身體上開刀,切除、更換或維護一些器官‭ ‬– 或甚至是整形手術‭(‬喔‭!‬上海的胸部比台北的大‭)‬。身體並不被視為是一個完整的有機體。

在這個粗暴的編輯過程中,無政府園丁們卻如一個微型編輯者般運作,像是依附著大型開發周遭的小型生活圈,他們佔領了城市中不怎麼美觀的地區,切入沉寂的開發閒置區域。例如‭ - ‬開發商欲從眾多地主手中購買下一整個街廓,而因為必須經過冗長的溝通,整個過程是非常緩慢的,當進度拖延時,這些都市園丁們就會趁隙而入開始耕耘這些區域。開發商因為不希望節外生枝而默許這樣的情形發生,畢竟取得整個街廓的使用權可能必須耗時3-5年的時間,在這段期間這些點就成為了社區的共有花園,而當開發案開始時,園丁們可能已經尋找到另一個閒置的地點重新佔領。

Third Generation City 第三代城市

第一代城市的概念是人類直接與自然連結相依,豐饒的台北盆地提供了這類居所完美的環境,河流中充滿著魚,也利於當作運輸要道,而周遭的山嶺保護著中央的耕作平原不受颱風直接肆虐。

第二代城市是工業化城市,宣告著人類從自然中獨立‭ - ‬一個機械體制環境可以提供人類一切所需,自然被視為不需要的東西甚至是具有敵意的‭ - ‬自然被阻隔在工業現實之外。

第三代城市是工業化城市的有機廢墟,台北城市中的社區花園是第三代城市主義中的碎片,與周遭的工業環境共存。「在地智慧」有機會在都市中呈現,這也是廢墟建築學院探索的焦點。城市園丁之中有許多擁有台北在地智慧的教授,當一座城市認同自己的在地智慧並且讓自己成為自然的一部分時,第三代城市便得實踐。

>>相關網站
::C-Lab | C 建築實驗室 | Marco Casagrande::

>>相關討論
::2010.11.06 UrbanCore 廢墟建築學院 - Marco Casagrande 講《台北有機活氣針灸》::
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楊恩達 Enta Yang
助理教授 Assistant Professor @ 逢甲大學建築系 Dept of Architecture, Feng Chia University
總監 Director @ 牧易建築事務所 mmuuii architects
創辦人 Founder @ 準建學堂 FAschool
創辦人 Founder @ 準建築人手札 forgemind archimedia




準建築人手札 Forgemind ArchiMediaARCHICAKE.COM
準建築人手札特搜引擎@Google
成為準建築人手札新會員必讀!!!
在 facebook 成為準建築人手札創辦人楊恩達的朋友
準建築人手札@新浪微博

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真理,我們無法確定;倫理,卻是千真萬確。
讀萬卷書不如行萬里路,行萬里路不如分享無數。
Your time is limited, so don't waste it living someone else's life. _Steve Jobs


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eaGer
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文章: 14124
註冊時間: 2008-05-04, 11:28

Re: Marco Casagrande - 台北有機活氣針灸 Taipei Organic Acupuncture

文章eaGer 發表於 2010-11-05, 09:26

附上 Marco Casagrande 撰寫之原文




Taipei Organic Acupuncture
Marco Casagrande / Ruin Academy

Acupuncture is the procedure of inserting and manipulating needles into various points on the body to relieve pain or for therapeutic purposes.

Urban planning integrates land use planning and transportation planning to improve the built, economic and social environments of communities.

Urban design concerns the arrangement, appearance and functionality of towns and cities, and in particular the shaping and uses of urban public space.

Environmental art is art dealing with ecological issues and possibly in political, historical or social context.

Sociology is a science of human social activity.

Anarchy is acting without waiting for instructions or official permission. The root of anarchism is the single impulse to do it yourself: everything else follows from this.


The community gardens and urban farms of Taipei are astonishing. They pop up like mushrooms on the degenerated, neglected or sleeping areas of the city, which could be referred to as urban composts.

These areas are operating outside the official urban control or the economic standard mechanisms. They are voids in the urban structure that suck in ad-hoc community actions and present a platform for anarchy through gardening.

For the vitality of Taipei, the networks of the anarchist gardens seem to provide a positive social disorder; positive terrorism. They are tuning the industrial city towards the organic, towards accident and in this sense they are ruining the modern urbanism. They are punctual organic revolutions and the seeds of the Third Generation City, the organic ruin of the industrial city.


Corners are windy

Claude Lévi-Strauss believes in the beauty of the human nature as part of nature. Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno lost all the hope for the industrial development and said it has failed the promise of the Enlightment - it had corrupted humanity. Andrei Tarkovsky’s Stalke (Mosfilm, 1979) is taking sophisticated people into the Zone, where their deepest wishes may come true. The Zone which is the organic ruin mirroring the surrounding mechanical reality. For the Strugatsky brothers (Arkady & Boris) the Zone was a Roadside Picnic.

The community gardens of Taipei are Roadside Picnic. Grandmothers can take us there, like Stalker. The honorable Lévi-Strauss could be happy to start new ethnographical research between the parallel realities of the cultures of the urban compost gardens and the surrounding city – the reversed modernization and focusing in Local Knowledge. Horkheimers & Adorno’s graves should be moved in one of these urban acupuncture spots of Taipei. Here even they would find hope, surrounded by the valueless modernity and hard industrialism. Prof. Jaakko Hämeen-Anttila has said: “The valueless void of the society of today will be filled with ethics: the corners are windy.” With the recognition of the urban farms and community gardens Taipei has found its corners.

What is the ethics then pushing through these corners into the city? It could be called Local Knowledge, site-specific reactions building a bridge between the modern man and nature. The gardens of Taipei, these acupuncture points, are penetrating through the industrial surface of the city and reaching the original ground. The self organized community gardens are the urban acupuncture needles of Taipei. Local Knowledge is in connection with the first generation city, when the built human environment was dependent on nature and regulated by nature. Now the anarchist gardeners are regulating the industrial city.

Dominate the no-man’s land

The community gardens are taking over abandoned construction sites and ruined housing areas, empty city-blocks waiting for development, flood banks of the rivers and even grave-yards out of fashion. In many cases the gardens are flourishing on spots of land where the land-owner issues are unsettle or complicated. Sometimes the garden will stay in the spot for only a couple of years, as in the cases of soon to be developed areas and sometimes the urban farming has decades long traditions as with the river flood plains or on the island in-between Zhongxiao and Zhongshing bridges. The smaller urban farms are flexible and eager to overtake the empty spots of the city, eager to dominate the no-man’s land.

One of the more famous urban farming communities of Taipei was the Treasure Hill settlement, originally an illegal community of KMT veterans. During its legitimating process Treasure Hill became so famous that eventually the original community was kicked away by the city government and the houses were taken over by artists and art related organizations. All the farms were destroyed on the process. Sounds like urban warfare against urban acupuncture. Treasure Hill was powerful and self-sustained when it was illegal. The community built its own houses and its own farms and it made its own rules. The official city wanted to eliminate this unofficial organic rival. NGOs found the issue sexy and stepped in to protect and legitimize the settlement. In the end the NGOs and artists took over the now-famous community and hooked up with the city government. The original urban farmers didn’t fit the picture anymore and had to leave. Now you can listen gansta-rap in a yellow plastic tent where the gardens used to be. Local knowledge died.

But Treasure Hill is not alone. Urban farming happens through different social classes and through out the city. The socially disordered citizens are ready to occupy land and start the community farms over and over again. Some acupuncture spots get hot and benefit the surrounding urban tissue while others fade away. The industrial surface of the city keeps constantly being broken up and herbs and vegetables are planted into the cracks. People are ruining the industrial city. Ruin is when man-made has become part of nature.

Urban Editors

Compared to Western cities Taipei plays in quite different rules. The aesthetics of the city is dominated by the functionality of a big collective machine and the urban mechanism is constantly being edited and rendered as with changing the micro-chips or other parts of a super-computer into more powerful ones. The urban data is people and this is what the machine needs to process. Mostly it goes smoothly, but also people get viruses – they get together to spontaneous demonstrations, they do tai-chi in improvised city-corners, they launch ad-hoc night markets or under-bridge sales on temporarily occupied streets or city corners. And they do farms – they are squeezing organic material into the machine like a creeper crawling into an air-conditioning box. Why they do this? Why does the nature want to break the machine?

Developers are the true urban editors. They are linked with the city authorities and necessary political powers and they make the urban editing. Architects are in a secondary role – something like the hyenas after the lions have made the kill. Money is a good consultant and the generating force of the developer run urban editing process. This is not urban acupuncture though; it is more like a western style medical practice – operations on the body removing, changing or maintaining parts – or even plastic surgery. (Oh, Shanghai has bigger tits than Taipei.) The body is not necessarily seen as one big organism.

In this rough editing process the anarchist gardeners seem to act as micro-editors, parasites benefiting of the slow circles of the big-scale development. They occupy the not so sexy areas of the city and they jump in the more sleepy parts of the development cycle. For example – the developer buys a whole city block with originally many land-owners. The process is slow because he has to negotiate with all of them. While the process is dragging behind the urban farmers step in and start farming the area. The developer doesn’t want to cause any more fuss and let it happen. It takes 3-5 years before the developer has got all the area to his possession and those same years the site acts as the community garden. When the actual construction starts the gardeners have already occupied a next vacant spot in the city.

Third Generation City

First generation city was the human settlement in straight connection with nature and dependent on nature. The fertile and rich Taipei basing provided a fruitful environment for such a settlement. The rivers were full of fish and good for transportation and the mountains protected the farmed plains from the straightest hits of the frequent typhoons.

The second generation city is the industrial city. Industrialism claimed the citizens independence from nature – a mechanical environment could provide human everything needed. Nature was seen as something un-necessary or as something hostile – it was walled away from the mechanical reality.

Third Generation City is the organic ruin of the industrial city. The community gardens of Taipei are fragments of the third generation urbanism when they exist together with the industrial surroundings. Local Knowledge is present in the city and this is where Ruin Academy focuses its research. Among the urban gardeners are the local knowledge professors of Taipei. Third Generation City is true when the city recognizes its local knowledge and allows itself to be part of nature.
楊恩達 Enta Yang
助理教授 Assistant Professor @ 逢甲大學建築系 Dept of Architecture, Feng Chia University
總監 Director @ 牧易建築事務所 mmuuii architects
創辦人 Founder @ 準建學堂 FAschool
創辦人 Founder @ 準建築人手札 forgemind archimedia




準建築人手札 Forgemind ArchiMediaARCHICAKE.COM
準建築人手札特搜引擎@Google
成為準建築人手札新會員必讀!!!
在 facebook 成為準建築人手札創辦人楊恩達的朋友
準建築人手札@新浪微博

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真理,我們無法確定;倫理,卻是千真萬確。
讀萬卷書不如行萬里路,行萬里路不如分享無數。
Your time is limited, so don't waste it living someone else's life. _Steve Jobs


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eaGer
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文章: 14124
註冊時間: 2008-05-04, 11:28

Re: Marco Casagrande - 台北有機活氣針灸 Taipei Organic Acupuncture

文章eaGer 發表於 2010-11-05, 09:27

Marco Casagrande 寫:地產開發商才是真正的城市編輯者,他們與都市官方及政治力量連線並且真正編輯著城市的面貌。建築師則位在第二線‭ - ‬有點像是跟在剛狩獵成功的獅子後頭等吃的土狼,金錢是開發商在進行編輯都市紋理時的動力與參考值,這並不像是都市針灸而是類似西方的醫學手術‭ - ‬在身體上開刀,切除、更換或維護一些器官‭ ‬– 或甚至是整形手術‭(‬喔‭!‬上海的胸部比台北的大‭)‬。身體並不被視為是一個完整的有機體。


Marco Casagrande 不愧是建築師,觀察入微哪! :D :D :D
楊恩達 Enta Yang
助理教授 Assistant Professor @ 逢甲大學建築系 Dept of Architecture, Feng Chia University
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真理,我們無法確定;倫理,卻是千真萬確。
讀萬卷書不如行萬里路,行萬里路不如分享無數。
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eaGer
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